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Zusammenfassung

Suchen Sie nach Möglichkeiten, Geschäftsprobleme zu durchdenken und zu lösen? Unsere Geschäftsstrategien und Rahmenbedingungen (Teil 4), die neueste einer vierteiligen Sammlung, bietet die besten Werkzeuge, um die perfekten Lösungen zu finden. Sie enthält Folien für die McKinsey-Richtlinienmatrix, Kostenmuster, Wettbewerbsbenchmarking, Markteintrittsbewertung, Stakeholder-Analyse und vieles mehr.

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RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed. It's a matrix used to clarify roles and responsibilities in business processes and projects to prevent confusion. Responsible refers to the person who does the work to complete the task. Accountable is the person who is ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the task. Consulted are the people who provide input into the decision-making process and are actively involved in the task. Informed are those who need to be kept 'in the loop' about progress or decisions, but they do not need to be formally consulted, nor do they contribute directly to the task or decision. This tool is not mentioned in the content provided, but it's a valuable tool for business problem-solving and decision-making.

The McKinsey Directional Policy Matrix is a tool that helps businesses strategize their product portfolio. For a business dealing in polyhouses producing seedlings for farmers, this matrix can help identify which products are stars (high market share and high market growth), cash cows (high market share, low market growth), question marks (low market share, high market growth), or dogs (low market share, low market growth).

Cost Patterns can be used to analyze the cost structure of the business. It can help identify fixed costs (like the cost of polyhouses), variable costs (like seeds, water, labor), and semi-variable costs. This analysis can help in identifying cost-saving opportunities and pricing strategies.

Creating these slides would involve gathering data about the business's products, market share, market growth, and costs. This data can then be visualized using the McKinsey Directional Policy Matrix and Cost Patterns.

Remember, these tools are just a starting point. They need to be complemented with a deep understanding of the business, the market, and the competitive landscape.

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GE/McKinsey-Richtlinienmatrix

Wenn es um Investitionen geht, stehen Unternehmen vor der Herausforderung begrenzter Ressourcen, aber auch vieler Möglichkeiten. Für diversifizierte Unternehmen ist die Entscheidung, in welche Produkte investiert werden soll, noch schwieriger. Dieses Problem wurde von der GE/McKinsey-Matrix angesprochen. Zu dieser Zeit hatte General Electric viele nicht zusammenhängende Produkte und erzielte nicht die gewünschten Renditen aus seinen Investitionen. Sie konsultierten McKinsey, und die resultierende Richtlinienmatrix wurde erstellt. Sie bewertet Chancen auf der Grundlage der Attraktivität der Branche und der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit.

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General Electric (GE) is a prime example of a company that has successfully used the GE/McKinsey matrix for their investment decisions. The matrix was actually developed by McKinsey for GE in the 1970s. At that time, GE had many unrelated products and was not achieving the desired returns from its investments. They consulted McKinsey, and the resulting directional policy matrix was created. This matrix evaluates opportunities based on industry attractiveness and competitive capability, helping GE to make more informed and strategic investment decisions.

Businesses can use various strategies and methods to decide on their investments. One of the most common methods is the use of financial analysis tools such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and Payback Period. These tools help businesses evaluate the profitability and feasibility of potential investments. Another strategy is the use of strategic frameworks like the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Matrix or the Ansoff Matrix, which help businesses evaluate their product portfolio and market growth opportunities. Businesses can also use risk assessment methods to understand the potential risks associated with an investment. Lastly, businesses can use market research to understand customer needs and market trends, which can guide investment decisions.

The GE/McKinsey matrix has influenced the investment strategies of global companies like Apple and Google by providing a strategic tool for managing a portfolio of businesses. It helps these companies to prioritize their investments among various business units or products, based on the attractiveness of the industry and the company's competitive strength within that industry. This allows them to allocate resources more effectively, focusing on areas with high growth potential and competitive advantage. However, specific details of how Apple and Google have used this matrix are not publicly available.

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Je größer der Kreis auf diesem Blasendiagramm ist, desto besser ist die Gelegenheit, angesichts der bestehenden Fähigkeiten einer Organisation geeignet. Damit können Sie sehen, welche Möglichkeiten Priorität haben sollten und welche möglicherweise abgestoßen werden müssen. (Folie 6)

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Um herauszufinden, wo jede Gelegenheit auf dem Blasendiagramm zu plotten ist, verwenden Sie diese Tabelle zur Bewertung. Erstellen Sie eine Liste von Faktoren, die nach Wichtigkeit gewichtet sind.Bewerten Sie dann jeden Faktor von 1-5 oder 1-10. Berechnen Sie schließlich die Gesamtpunktzahl. (Folie 5)

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While specific company examples are not provided in the content, bubble chart strategy is widely used in various industries for opportunity assessment. For instance, a multinational corporation might use it to evaluate potential markets. The size of the bubble could represent the potential profit or market size, while the position could indicate the company's current capabilities or market share in that region. This allows the company to prioritize opportunities and make strategic decisions. However, without specific context, it's hard to provide a real-world example.

There are several alternative methods to the bubble chart strategy for assessing business opportunities. One such method is the SWOT analysis, which evaluates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a business. Another method is the PESTEL analysis, which considers political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors. The Porter's Five Forces model is also a popular tool for assessing the competitive environment of a business. Additionally, the Ansoff Matrix can be used to determine growth strategies by analyzing existing and potential products in current and future markets.

Global companies like Apple and Google can utilize the bubble chart strategy to prioritize their opportunities by plotting each opportunity on the chart based on an assessment. This assessment can be made by creating a list of factors, each weighted by importance, and then rating each factor on a scale (for example, 1-5 or 1-10). The total score is then calculated. The larger the circle representing the opportunity on the bubble chart, the better suited the opportunity is, given the company's existing capabilities. This allows companies to visually see which opportunities should take priority and which may need to be divested.

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Kostenmuster

Die Fähigkeit, Kosten zu senken, kann für bestimmte Unternehmen der größte Wettbewerbsvorteil sein. Durch die Analyse von Kostenmustern kann das Management besser budgetieren, um Kosten zu reduzieren und den Gewinn zu maximieren. Es ermöglicht ihnen auch, realistische Produktions- und Verkaufsziele zu setzen. Es gibt zwei Hauptarten von Kosten: variable und feste.

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While the content does not provide a specific example, a well-known case of a company using cost pattern analysis to reduce costs and increase profit is Walmart. Walmart's cost pattern analysis involves a deep understanding of their fixed and variable costs. They use this information to negotiate better deals with suppliers, optimize their logistics and inventory management, and pass savings onto customers while still maintaining profitability. This strategy has helped Walmart become one of the largest and most profitable retailers in the world.

Alternative strategies to cost pattern analysis for setting realistic production and sales goals could include market analysis, competitor analysis, and demand forecasting. Market analysis involves studying the dynamics of the market in which the company operates, including customer needs and preferences, to set goals that align with market trends. Competitor analysis involves studying the strategies and performance of competitors to identify opportunities and threats, and set goals accordingly. Demand forecasting involves predicting future demand for the company's products or services, which can help in setting production and sales goals.

Global companies like Apple and Tesla can use cost pattern analysis to maximize their profits by better understanding their cost structure and identifying areas where costs can be reduced. This involves analyzing both variable and fixed costs. Variable costs change with the level of production, such as raw materials and labor costs. By analyzing these costs, companies can identify inefficiencies and make adjustments to improve profitability. Fixed costs, on the other hand, do not change with the level of production, such as rent and salaries. Analyzing these costs can help companies determine if they are over-spending in certain areas and where they can potentially save money. Furthermore, cost pattern analysis can help these companies set realistic production and sales goals.

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  • Variable Kosten ändern sich in der Regel proportional zu Änderungen im Volumen der Aktivität. Zum Beispiel, wenn mehr Fahrräder produziert und verkauft werden, werden die gesamten variablen Kosten höher sein.
  • Feste Kosten hingegen ändern sich nicht mit dem Volumen der Aktivität. Dies beinhaltet Kosten wie Gehälter für Angestellte, Gebäudemiete oder Versicherungen.
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Yes, a real-world example of how changes in volume of activity can significantly impact a company's total variable cost is the airline industry. When an airline increases its number of flights, it incurs more fuel costs, which are variable costs. Similarly, if the airline decreases its number of flights, it will incur less fuel costs. Another example is the manufacturing industry. If a company produces more units of a product, it will need more raw materials, which are a variable cost. Conversely, if it produces fewer units, it will need less raw materials.

Businesses can manage their fixed costs through various strategies. They can negotiate for lower rates or discounts with their suppliers or landlords. They can also consider subleasing unused space or assets to generate additional income. Another strategy is to review insurance policies to ensure they are not over-insured. Businesses can also consider outsourcing certain functions if it is more cost-effective. Lastly, they can implement energy-saving measures to reduce utility bills.

Companies like Apple and Google manage their variable and fixed costs in relation to their volume of activity through various strategies. They optimize their variable costs, which change with the volume of activity, by improving operational efficiency and negotiating better terms with suppliers. For fixed costs, which do not change with the volume of activity, they aim to spread these costs over a larger volume of output to reduce the average cost per unit. They also invest in technology and automation to reduce both variable and fixed costs. However, the specific strategies may vary based on the company's unique circumstances and business model.

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Diese Diagramme zeigen einige gängige Muster, die diese Kosten berücksichtigen. Sie können erwarten, dass die Kostenstruktur für einen Lebensmittelladen im Vergleich zu einem Softwareunternehmen stark unterschiedlich ist. Aber unabhängig von der Art des Geschäfts ist die Vertrautheit mit dem Verhalten der Kosten und deren Verschiebungen für die Preisbewertung, Kostensenkung und Budgetierung von Ausgaben unerlässlich.(Folie 26)

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A good example of a company using cost behavior understanding for pricing, cost-cutting, and budgeting is Amazon. Amazon's pricing strategy is dynamic and changes based on various factors such as demand, competition, and cost of goods sold. They use cost behavior analysis to understand how their costs change with the level of output or activity. This helps them in setting competitive prices and maximizing profits.

For cost-cutting, Amazon uses its understanding of cost behavior to identify areas where costs can be reduced without affecting the quality of service. For instance, they have automated many of their warehouses which has significantly reduced their labor costs.

In terms of budgeting, Amazon uses cost behavior analysis to forecast future costs based on projected levels of activity. This helps them in planning their financial resources effectively.

A software company can use several strategies to understand the behavior of costs and manage their budget. Firstly, they can use cost accounting to identify the costs associated with each project or product. This can help them understand where their money is going and identify areas for cost reduction. Secondly, they can use financial modeling to predict future costs based on past data. This can help them plan their budget more accurately. Thirdly, they can use benchmarking to compare their costs with those of similar companies in the industry. This can help them identify areas where they are spending more than necessary. Lastly, they can use software tools for budget management and cost tracking, which can provide real-time insights into their spending.

Global companies like Apple and Google can apply the concept of understanding the behavior of costs and its shift in several ways. Firstly, they can use this understanding to set competitive prices for their products and services. By understanding how costs behave, they can determine the minimum price they need to charge to cover costs and make a profit. Secondly, they can use this understanding to identify areas where they can cut costs. For example, if they notice that a particular cost tends to increase over time, they can investigate why this is happening and take steps to reduce it. Finally, understanding the behavior of costs can help these companies to budget more effectively. They can predict how costs are likely to change in the future and plan their budgets accordingly.

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Wettbewerbs-Benchmarking

Das Benchmarking Ihres Unternehmens gegenüber anderen in der Branche kann helfen zu identifizieren, wie erfolgreich Ihr Unternehmen im Vergleich ist, wo es sich auszeichnet und wo es zurückbleibt. Durch die Aufstellung einer Liste von kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren können Sie eine Reihe von Standards erstellen, um sich mit Ihrem Wettbewerb zu messen und die Unterschiede zu erkennen.

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While the content does not provide specific examples, there are numerous companies that have successfully used competitive benchmarking to improve their business strategies. For instance, Toyota is known for its benchmarking practices to improve its production system. They studied Ford's production lines to develop their own Lean Manufacturing system. Similarly, Walmart used benchmarking to analyze its competitors' strategies and improve its supply chain efficiency. Google also uses benchmarking to compare its data centers' efficiency to industry standards. These examples illustrate how companies can use competitive benchmarking to identify areas of improvement and develop strategies to gain a competitive edge.

Some alternative strategies to competitive benchmarking include self-assessment, peer reviews, and performance metrics. Self-assessment involves evaluating your own business processes and performance without comparing to others. Peer reviews involve getting feedback from colleagues or industry peers. Performance metrics involve tracking key performance indicators (KPIs) relevant to your business, such as sales growth, customer satisfaction, and operational efficiency.

Global companies like Apple and Google can utilize competitive benchmarking to identify their strengths and weaknesses by comparing their performance, strategies, products, and services with those of their competitors. This process involves identifying key performance indicators and success factors, and then measuring these against industry standards or best practices. This can help these companies understand where they excel and where they need to improve. They can then use this information to develop strategies to enhance their strengths and address their weaknesses, thereby gaining a competitive edge in the market.

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Hier wird jedem Erfolgsfaktor ein Gewicht für die Wichtigkeit gegeben und dann von den Kunden bewertet. Stellen Sie die Punkte für jeden Erfolgsfaktor unter den Unternehmen dar, die die größten Wettbewerber sind. Die grauen Punkte zeigen die Wettbewerberbewertungen an, während die blauen Punkte die Bewertungen Ihrer Kunden sind. Machen Sie schnell visuelle Vergleiche, indem Sie die gezeichneten Linien betrachten, um zu sehen, was funktioniert und was nicht. (Folie 12)

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Market Entry Assessment provides several benefits in business strategies and frameworks. It helps in understanding the dynamics of the new market, including competition, customer preferences, and regulatory environment. This understanding aids in making informed decisions about whether to enter the market, what strategy to adopt, and how to allocate resources. It also helps in identifying potential risks and devising mitigation strategies. Furthermore, it provides insights into potential partnerships or acquisitions that could facilitate market entry.

Visual comparisons of competitor scores and customer scores can enhance business decision making by providing a clear and concise overview of how a company is performing in comparison to its competitors. This can highlight areas where the company is excelling or falling behind, allowing for targeted improvements. It can also identify trends and patterns that may not be immediately apparent in numerical data. This visual representation can make it easier for decision makers to understand the data and make informed decisions.

The weight for importance in success factors is significant as it helps in prioritizing the factors that contribute to the success of a business. Each success factor is given a weight based on its importance, and then it is scored by customers. This allows businesses to understand which factors are more important from the customer's perspective and focus their efforts accordingly. It also helps in making visual comparisons to see what's working and what's not.

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Markteintrittsbewertung

Die Markteintrittsanalyse wird verwendet, um zu bewerten, ob ein Unternehmen in einen Markt eintreten oder neue Produkte in bestehenden Märkten anbieten sollte. In diesem Fall werden häufig Wachstumsaussichten, Fähigkeiten und Schwierigkeiten berücksichtigt. In den meisten Fällen verbessert sich die Produktleistung im Laufe der Zeit. Aber eine zu große Verbesserung kann tatsächlich zum Niedergang eines Unternehmens führen.Jetzt klingt das kontraintuitiv, aber hier ist der Grund... (Folie 11)

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Dieses Paradoxon wird als "Dilemma des Innovators" bezeichnet: Ein Produkt oder eine Technologie entwickelt sich so weit, dass die durchschnittlichen Verbraucher keinen Bedarf an der überdurchschnittlichen Leistung haben. An diesem Punkt sind diese Kunden nicht bereit, einen höheren Preis für die bessere Leistung zu zahlen. Tatsächlich würden sie lieber eine weniger fortschrittliche Technologie zu einem niedrigeren Preis kaufen. Es gibt einen bestimmten Leistungsbereich, den Kunden nutzen können, und jenseits dieses Punktes beginnen sowohl Verbraucher als auch das Unternehmen, sinkende Renditen zu sehen.

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Sobald ein Produkt den Punkt unerfüllter Bedürfnisse erreicht, könnte es an der Zeit sein, über eine Neuausrichtung nachzudenken. Auf diese Weise können Sie sicherstellen, dass das Unternehmen sich auf Aktivitäten konzentriert, die den Bedürfnissen der Kunden gerecht werden und höhere Gewinne versprechen.

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Stakeholder-Analyse

Zu den Stakeholdern gehören Personen, Führungskräfte, Organisationen und andere Parteien, die von einem Projekt betroffen sein könnten oder Einfluss auf dessen Ergebnis haben könnten. Sie können sowohl innerhalb als auch außerhalb einer Organisation sein. Hier ordnen wir die Stakeholder nach Macht und Interesse. Halten Sie diejenigen zufrieden und beobachten Sie diejenigen, die wenig Interesse haben, aber diejenigen, die am engsten zu beobachten sind, sind diejenigen mit hoher Macht und hohem Interesse. Kommunizieren Sie oft mit diesen Stakeholdern. Oder wenn Sie ein einfacheres Design wünschen, listet diese Matrix alle mit nur den wichtigen Details auf.(Folien 16-17)

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Geschäftsauswirkungsanalyse (BIA)

Die Geschäftsauswirkungsanalyse hat viel mit Risikoprävention und Szenarioplanung im Falle einer Störung zu tun. Sie kann helfen, sich auf Aufs und Abs in der makroökonomischen Welt vorzubereiten. Mit dieser Tabelle können Sie die Informationen abbilden, die zur Entwicklung von Wiederherstellungsstrategien nach einer Störung benötigt werden, wie zum Beispiel die benötigte Zeit zur Wiederherstellung und die Wichtigkeit einer solchen Wiederherstellung. In unserer unsicheren Wirtschaft ist dieses Tool wichtiger denn je.(Folie 13)

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