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सारांश

क्या आप व्यापारिक समस्याओं को सोचने और हल करने के तरीके चाहते हैं? हमारा व्यापार रणनीतियाँ और ढांचे (भाग 4), एक चार भागों के संग्रह का नवीनतम, सही समाधान ढूंढने के लिए सर्वश्रेष्ठ उपकरण प्रदान करता है। इसमें McKinsey Directional Policy Matrix, Cost Patterns, Competitive Benchmarking, Market Entry Assessment, Stakeholder Analysis, और अन्य कई स्लाइड्स शामिल हैं।

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RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed. It's a matrix used to clarify roles and responsibilities in business processes and projects to prevent confusion. Responsible refers to the person who does the work to complete the task. Accountable is the person who is ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the task. Consulted are the people who provide input into the decision-making process and are actively involved in the task. Informed are those who need to be kept 'in the loop' about progress or decisions, but they do not need to be formally consulted, nor do they contribute directly to the task or decision. This tool is not mentioned in the content provided, but it's a valuable tool for business problem-solving and decision-making.

The McKinsey Directional Policy Matrix is a tool that helps businesses strategize their product portfolio. For a business dealing in polyhouses producing seedlings for farmers, this matrix can help identify which products are stars (high market share and high market growth), cash cows (high market share, low market growth), question marks (low market share, high market growth), or dogs (low market share, low market growth).

Cost Patterns can be used to analyze the cost structure of the business. It can help identify fixed costs (like the cost of polyhouses), variable costs (like seeds, water, labor), and semi-variable costs. This analysis can help in identifying cost-saving opportunities and pricing strategies.

Creating these slides would involve gathering data about the business's products, market share, market growth, and costs. This data can then be visualized using the McKinsey Directional Policy Matrix and Cost Patterns.

Remember, these tools are just a starting point. They need to be complemented with a deep understanding of the business, the market, and the competitive landscape.

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GE/McKinsey Directional Policy Matrix

निवेश के मामले में, व्यवसायों को सीमित संसाधनों की चुनौती का सामना करना पड़ता है, लेकिन कई संभावनाएं भी होती हैं। विविध व्यवसायों के लिए, किस उत्पादों में निवेश करना है, यह तय करना और भी कठिन होता है। इस मुद्दे को GE/McKinsey matrix ने सुलझाया। उस समय, General Electric के पास कई असंबंधित उत्पाद थे और उनके निवेशों से वांछित लाभ नहीं मिल रहा था। उन्होंने McKinsey से परामर्श किया, और परिणामस्वरूप directional policy matrix बनाया गया। यह उद्योग की आकर्षण और प्रतिस्पर्धी क्षमता के आधार पर अवसरों का मूल्यांकन करता है।

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The GE McKinsey Matrix is a nine-cell matrix used by companies for product portfolio analysis. It helps businesses decide where to invest. For Google, we can consider three of its products: Google Search, Google Glass, and Google Plus.

1. High Industry Attractiveness, High Competitive Strength: Google Search. It's in a highly attractive industry with a lot of users and advertisers. Google's competitive strength here is very high, as it's the leading search engine worldwide.

2. High Industry Attractiveness, Low Competitive Strength: Google Glass. The wearable tech industry is attractive with high growth potential. However, Google Glass didn't perform well due to issues like high price and privacy concerns.

3. Low Industry Attractiveness, High Competitive Strength: Google Plus. The social networking industry is highly competitive with dominant players like Facebook. Despite Google's strength, Google Plus didn't attract many users and was eventually shut down.

4. Low Industry Attractiveness, Low Competitive Strength: This could be a hypothetical product in a saturated market where Google doesn't have a unique offering.

Remember, the matrix is used for strategic decision-making, guiding where to invest, develop, or divest.

The GE McKinsey Matrix is a strategic business tool that helps companies decide where to invest among multiple business units or product lines. It evaluates opportunities based on two dimensions: industry attractiveness and business unit strength.

For Google products, the matrix could be applied as follows:

1. Industry Attractiveness: This could include factors such as market size, growth rate, profitability, and competitive intensity. For example, the search engine market, where Google Search operates, is highly attractive due to its large size and high growth rate.

2. Business Unit Strength: This could include factors such as market share, brand strength, technological capability, and quality of personnel. For example, Google Maps has a high market share and strong brand, making it a strong business unit.

By plotting Google's products on the GE McKinsey Matrix, Google can identify which products to invest in (high industry attractiveness and high business unit strength), which to maintain (high in one dimension but low in the other), and which to divest (low in both dimensions).

Remember, the matrix is a strategic tool and should be used in conjunction with other tools and analysis to make informed business decisions.

General Electric (GE) is a prime example of a company that has successfully used the GE/McKinsey matrix for their investment decisions. The matrix was actually developed by McKinsey for GE in the 1970s. At that time, GE had many unrelated products and was not achieving the desired returns from its investments. They consulted McKinsey, and the resulting directional policy matrix was created. This matrix evaluates opportunities based on industry attractiveness and competitive capability, helping GE to make more informed and strategic investment decisions.

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इस bubble chart पर जितना बड़ा वृत्त होता है, उत्तरदायित्व के आधार पर अवसर उत्तम होता है। इसके साथ, आप देख सकते हैं कि किन अवसरों को प्राथमिकता देनी चाहिए और किन्हें निवेश से बाहर किया जाना चाहिए। (स्लाइड 6)

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बबल चार्ट पर प्रत्येक अवसर को कहां प्लॉट करना है, इसका पता लगाने के लिए इस तालिका का उपयोग करें। महत्वपूर्णता के आधार पर एक सूची बनाएं।फिर, प्रत्येक कारक को 1-5 या 1-10 के बीच मूल्यांकित करें। अंत में, कुल स्कोर की गणना करें। (स्लाइड 5)

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While specific company examples are not provided in the content, bubble chart strategy is widely used in various industries for opportunity assessment. For instance, a multinational corporation might use it to evaluate potential markets. The size of the bubble could represent the potential profit or market size, while the position could indicate the company's current capabilities or market share in that region. This allows the company to prioritize opportunities and make strategic decisions. However, without specific context, it's hard to provide a real-world example.

There are several alternative methods to the bubble chart strategy for assessing business opportunities. One such method is the SWOT analysis, which evaluates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a business. Another method is the PESTEL analysis, which considers political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors. The Porter's Five Forces model is also a popular tool for assessing the competitive environment of a business. Additionally, the Ansoff Matrix can be used to determine growth strategies by analyzing existing and potential products in current and future markets.

Global companies like Apple and Google can utilize the bubble chart strategy to prioritize their opportunities by plotting each opportunity on the chart based on an assessment. This assessment can be made by creating a list of factors, each weighted by importance, and then rating each factor on a scale (for example, 1-5 or 1-10). The total score is then calculated. The larger the circle representing the opportunity on the bubble chart, the better suited the opportunity is, given the company's existing capabilities. This allows companies to visually see which opportunities should take priority and which may need to be divested.

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लागत पैटर्न

लागतों को कम करने की क्षमता कुछ कंपनियों के लिए सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी लाभ हो सकती है। लागत पैटर्न विश्लेषण के माध्यम से, प्रबंधन लागतों को कम करने और लाभ को अधिकतम करने के लिए बेहतर बजट तैयार कर सकता है। यह उन्हें वास्तविक उत्पादन और बिक्री के लक्ष्य सेट करने में भी सहायता करता है। दो प्रमुख प्रकार की लागतें होती हैं: चर और स्थिर।

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While the content does not provide a specific example, a well-known case of a company using cost pattern analysis to reduce costs and increase profit is Walmart. Walmart's cost pattern analysis involves a deep understanding of their fixed and variable costs. They use this information to negotiate better deals with suppliers, optimize their logistics and inventory management, and pass savings onto customers while still maintaining profitability. This strategy has helped Walmart become one of the largest and most profitable retailers in the world.

Alternative strategies to cost pattern analysis for setting realistic production and sales goals could include market analysis, competitor analysis, and demand forecasting. Market analysis involves studying the dynamics of the market in which the company operates, including customer needs and preferences, to set goals that align with market trends. Competitor analysis involves studying the strategies and performance of competitors to identify opportunities and threats, and set goals accordingly. Demand forecasting involves predicting future demand for the company's products or services, which can help in setting production and sales goals.

Global companies like Apple and Tesla can use cost pattern analysis to maximize their profits by better understanding their cost structure and identifying areas where costs can be reduced. This involves analyzing both variable and fixed costs. Variable costs change with the level of production, such as raw materials and labor costs. By analyzing these costs, companies can identify inefficiencies and make adjustments to improve profitability. Fixed costs, on the other hand, do not change with the level of production, such as rent and salaries. Analyzing these costs can help companies determine if they are over-spending in certain areas and where they can potentially save money. Furthermore, cost pattern analysis can help these companies set realistic production and sales goals.

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  • चर लागतें आमतौर पर गतिविधि के आयतन में परिवर्तन के अनुपात में बदलती हैं। उदाहरण के लिए, अगर अधिक साइकिलें उत्पादित और बेची जाती हैं, तो कुल चर लागत अधिक होगी।
  • वहीं, स्थिर लागतें दूसरी ओर, गतिविधि के आयतन के साथ बदलती नहीं हैं। इसमें वेतनभोगी कर्मचारियों, भवन किराया, या बीमा जैसी लागतें शामिल होती हैं।
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Yes, a real-world example of how changes in volume of activity can significantly impact a company's total variable cost is the airline industry. When an airline increases its number of flights, it incurs more fuel costs, which are variable costs. Similarly, if the airline decreases its number of flights, it will incur less fuel costs. Another example is the manufacturing industry. If a company produces more units of a product, it will need more raw materials, which are a variable cost. Conversely, if it produces fewer units, it will need less raw materials.

Businesses can manage their fixed costs through various strategies. They can negotiate for lower rates or discounts with their suppliers or landlords. They can also consider subleasing unused space or assets to generate additional income. Another strategy is to review insurance policies to ensure they are not over-insured. Businesses can also consider outsourcing certain functions if it is more cost-effective. Lastly, they can implement energy-saving measures to reduce utility bills.

Companies like Apple and Google manage their variable and fixed costs in relation to their volume of activity through various strategies. They optimize their variable costs, which change with the volume of activity, by improving operational efficiency and negotiating better terms with suppliers. For fixed costs, which do not change with the volume of activity, they aim to spread these costs over a larger volume of output to reduce the average cost per unit. They also invest in technology and automation to reduce both variable and fixed costs. However, the specific strategies may vary based on the company's unique circumstances and business model.

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ये ग्राफ कुछ सामान्य पैटर्न दिखाते हैं जो इन लागतों को ध्यान में रखते हैं। आप एक किराना स्टोर के लिए लागत संरचना की अपेक्षा एक सॉफ्टवेयर कंपनी की लागत संरचना को बहुत अलग पाएंगे। लेकिन चाहे किसी भी प्रकार का व्यवसाय हो, लागतों के व्यवहार के साथ परिचय और उनके कैसे बदलते हैं, यह मूल्य निर्धारण, लागत काटने और व्यय बजटिंग के लिए आवश्यक है।(स्लाइड 26)

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A good example of a company using cost behavior understanding for pricing, cost-cutting, and budgeting is Amazon. Amazon's pricing strategy is dynamic and changes based on various factors such as demand, competition, and cost of goods sold. They use cost behavior analysis to understand how their costs change with the level of output or activity. This helps them in setting competitive prices and maximizing profits.

For cost-cutting, Amazon uses its understanding of cost behavior to identify areas where costs can be reduced without affecting the quality of service. For instance, they have automated many of their warehouses which has significantly reduced their labor costs.

In terms of budgeting, Amazon uses cost behavior analysis to forecast future costs based on projected levels of activity. This helps them in planning their financial resources effectively.

A software company can use several strategies to understand the behavior of costs and manage their budget. Firstly, they can use cost accounting to identify the costs associated with each project or product. This can help them understand where their money is going and identify areas for cost reduction. Secondly, they can use financial modeling to predict future costs based on past data. This can help them plan their budget more accurately. Thirdly, they can use benchmarking to compare their costs with those of similar companies in the industry. This can help them identify areas where they are spending more than necessary. Lastly, they can use software tools for budget management and cost tracking, which can provide real-time insights into their spending.

Global companies like Apple and Google can apply the concept of understanding the behavior of costs and its shift in several ways. Firstly, they can use this understanding to set competitive prices for their products and services. By understanding how costs behave, they can determine the minimum price they need to charge to cover costs and make a profit. Secondly, they can use this understanding to identify areas where they can cut costs. For example, if they notice that a particular cost tends to increase over time, they can investigate why this is happening and take steps to reduce it. Finally, understanding the behavior of costs can help these companies to budget more effectively. They can predict how costs are likely to change in the future and plan their budgets accordingly.

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प्रतिस्पर्धी बेंचमार्किंग

अपने व्यापार को उद्योग के अन्य व्यापारों के साथ बेंचमार्क करने से पता चल सकता है कि आपकी कंपनी कितनी सफल है, यह कहां उत्कृष्ट है, और यह कहां पिछड़ जाती है। महत्वपूर्ण सफलता के कारकों की एक सूची तैयार करके, आप अपने प्रतिस्पर्धियों के साथ मिलान करने के लिए मानकों की एक श्रृंखला बना सकते हैं और अंतरों की पहचान कर सकते हैं।

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While the content does not provide specific examples, there are numerous companies that have successfully used competitive benchmarking to improve their business strategies. For instance, Toyota is known for its benchmarking practices to improve its production system. They studied Ford's production lines to develop their own Lean Manufacturing system. Similarly, Walmart used benchmarking to analyze its competitors' strategies and improve its supply chain efficiency. Google also uses benchmarking to compare its data centers' efficiency to industry standards. These examples illustrate how companies can use competitive benchmarking to identify areas of improvement and develop strategies to gain a competitive edge.

Some alternative strategies to competitive benchmarking include self-assessment, peer reviews, and performance metrics. Self-assessment involves evaluating your own business processes and performance without comparing to others. Peer reviews involve getting feedback from colleagues or industry peers. Performance metrics involve tracking key performance indicators (KPIs) relevant to your business, such as sales growth, customer satisfaction, and operational efficiency.

Global companies like Apple and Google can utilize competitive benchmarking to identify their strengths and weaknesses by comparing their performance, strategies, products, and services with those of their competitors. This process involves identifying key performance indicators and success factors, and then measuring these against industry standards or best practices. This can help these companies understand where they excel and where they need to improve. They can then use this information to develop strategies to enhance their strengths and address their weaknesses, thereby gaining a competitive edge in the market.

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यहां, प्रत्येक सफलता के कारक को महत्व के लिए एक वजन दिया जाता है, और फिर ग्राहकों द्वारा स्कोर किया जाता है। प्रत्येक सफलता के कारक के लिए सबसे बड़े प्रतिस्पर्धियों की कंपनियों के तहत स्कोर बनाएं। ग्रे डॉट्स प्रतिस्पर्धी स्कोरों को दर्शाते हैं, जबकि नीले डॉट्स आपकी कंपनी के ग्राहकों द्वारा स्कोर करने का तरीका हैं। बनाए गए रेखाओं को देखकर त्वरित रूप से दृश्य तुलनाएं करें और देखें कि क्या काम कर रहा है और क्या नहीं। (स्लाइड 12)

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Market Entry Assessment provides several benefits in business strategies and frameworks. It helps in understanding the dynamics of the new market, including competition, customer preferences, and regulatory environment. This understanding aids in making informed decisions about whether to enter the market, what strategy to adopt, and how to allocate resources. It also helps in identifying potential risks and devising mitigation strategies. Furthermore, it provides insights into potential partnerships or acquisitions that could facilitate market entry.

Visual comparisons of competitor scores and customer scores can enhance business decision making by providing a clear and concise overview of how a company is performing in comparison to its competitors. This can highlight areas where the company is excelling or falling behind, allowing for targeted improvements. It can also identify trends and patterns that may not be immediately apparent in numerical data. This visual representation can make it easier for decision makers to understand the data and make informed decisions.

The weight for importance in success factors is significant as it helps in prioritizing the factors that contribute to the success of a business. Each success factor is given a weight based on its importance, and then it is scored by customers. This allows businesses to understand which factors are more important from the customer's perspective and focus their efforts accordingly. It also helps in making visual comparisons to see what's working and what's not.

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बाजार प्रवेश मूल्यांकन

बाजार प्रवेश विश्लेषण का उपयोग यह मूल्यांकन करने के लिए किया जाता है कि कंपनी को बाजार में प्रवेश करना चाहिए या मौजूदा बाजारों में नए उत्पादों की पेशकश करनी चाहिए। इस मामले में, कुछ क्षेत्र जो आमतौर पर विचार किए जाते हैं, वे हैं विकास की संभावनाएं, कौशल और कठिनाईयां। अधिकांश मामलों में, उत्पाद की प्रदर्शन क्षमता समय के साथ सुधरती है। लेकिन बहुत बड़ी सुधार वास्तव में एक संगठन के पतन का कारण बन सकती है।अब, यह विरोधाभासी लगता है, लेकिन यहां क्यों... (स्लाइड 11)

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इस विरोधाभास को "नवाचारक की समस्या" कहा जाता है: एक उत्पाद या तकनीक इतनी उन्नत हो जाती है कि औसत उपभोक्ताओं को इसके ऊपरी प्रदर्शन की आवश्यकता नहीं होती। इस बिंदु पर, ये ग्राहक बेहतर प्रदर्शन के लिए उच्च मूल्य देने के लिए तैयार नहीं होते। वास्तव में, वे कम उन्नत तकनीक को कम मूल्य में खरीदना पसंद करेंगे। ग्राहकों द्वारा उपयोग किए जाने वाले प्रदर्शन की एक निश्चित सीमा होती है, और उस बिंदु के पार, उपभोक्ता और व्यापार दोनों को कम होते हुए लाभ दिखाई देंगे।

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एक बार जब एक उत्पाद अपूर्ण आवश्यकताओं के बिंदु तक पहुंच जाता है, तो शायद सोचने का समय हो सकता है कि पिवोट करना शुरू कर दें। इस तरह, आप निश्चित कर सकते हैं कि कंपनी ग्राहकों की आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करने वाली गतिविधियों पर केंद्रित है और उच्च लाभ का वादा करती है।

हितधारक विश्लेषण

हितधारकों में लोग, नेता, संगठन और अन्य पक्ष शामिल होते हैं जो प्रभावित हो सकते हैं या एक परियोजना के परिणाम पर प्रभाव डाल सकते हैं। वे संगठन के भीतर या बाहर हो सकते हैं। यहां हम शक्ति और हित में हितधारकों का मानचित्रण करते हैं। उन्हें संतुष्ट और निगरानी करें जिनकी रुचि कम है, लेकिन वे जिनकी शक्ति और हित अधिक हैं, उन्हें सबसे अधिक निगरानी करनी होती है। इन हितधारकों के साथ अक्सर संवाद करें। या यदि आप एक सरल डिजाइन चाहते हैं, तो यह मैट्रिक्स उन्हें सभी केवल महत्वपूर्ण विवरणों के साथ सूचीबद्ध करता है।(स्लाइड 16-17)

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व्यावसायिक प्रभाव विश्लेषण (BIA)

व्यावसायिक प्रभाव विश्लेषण का बहुत कुछ संकट निवारण और परिस्थिति योजना से संबंधित होता है, यदि विघ्न आता है। यह साहसिक और मंद आर्थिक दुनिया में तैयारी करने में मदद कर सकता है। इस चार्ट के साथ, विघ्न से बरामद होने की रणनीतियां विकसित करने के लिए आवश्यक जानकारी का नक्शा बनाएं, जैसे कि बरामद होने में कितना समय लगेगा और बरामद होने का महत्व। हमारी अनिश्चित अर्थव्यवस्था में, यह उपकरण कभी से अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है।(स्लाइड 13)

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